In the US, the Department of Justice works actively to protect Muslim, Arab, Sikh, South Asian and Hindu (‘MASSAH’) communities from threats, violence and discrimination. Specifically, the Department’s Civil Rights Division enforces a wide range of anti-discrimination laws based on religion (as well as on other characteristics including race, ethnicity and gender) in the workplace (employment discrimination), in schools and colleges (education discrimination), and in the use of land for religious purposes (e.g., for building and maintaining mosques). Additionally, a specialised team of attorneys handles hate crime prosecutions, including crimes against persons based on their religion.

Since the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the Justice Department has aggressively prosecuted acts of violence, threats, assaults and arson targeting the MASSAH community, and those perceived to be members of these groups. As of April 2019, the Civil Rights Division and US Attorney’s Offices have brought prosecutions against 87 defendants in such cases, with 77 convictions